have a cold と catch a coldの違いは何でしょうか


こんにちは、イギリス生まれ・東京在住、英語教師で作家のLukeです。今週、僕が書いたオノマトペ(擬態語・語音後)についての本 が出版されました。是非チェックしてみて下さい!

前回、風邪とcoldの違いについての記事を投稿したのですが、読者の方から「catch a coldとhave a coldの意味は同じですか?」という質問をいただきました。確かに、これは少し分かり辛いかもしれませんね。しかし、ポイントさえ押さえれば理解出来ることなので、今日はそれについて説明します。

まず、「catch a cold」は、「風邪を引くという動作」を表します。一方で、「have a cold」は、「風邪を引いている状態」を表します。ですので、

I caught a cold from my daughter.

X I have a cold from my daughter.
と、いうことは出来ません。なぜならこの「I caught a cold from my daughter.」という文章は、「風邪が移った」という「動作」についての話だからです。

If I have a cold, then maybe you will catch a cold too.

そして、いつ風邪を引いたのかを「have a cold」で表す場合は、「since」を使って、「いつから風邪を引いている状態になったのか」を説明します。

I have had a cold since yesterday.

I caught a cold yesterday.

ちなみに、現在完了形は今の状態を表す時勢なので、現在完了形の「have caught a cold」は「have a cold」の意味にとても似ています。

I have a cold.
I have caught a cold.

8 件のコメント

  • I have a cold.
    I have a headache.
    I have a sore throat

  • 私の教えてもらった記憶によると、その病気は会話相手との共通認識であるかどうかだと思います。
    the がつくのが共通、a がつくのが非共通と習った気がします。

  • Hi Luke,
    The usage of ” have a cold ” is often used with ” could “.
    Here is a great story I considered using below:
    ◆ Could & Can & Could have + past participle & Can have + past participle ? & Can’t have + past participle & Can have for Speculate
    < Title: How many meanings ” could ” have?lol >
    A to B: “I could have a cold.”:
    Possibility in the present
    ” I could have also fever.”:
    Possibility in the future
    B to A: ” Could you go to the hospital?”:
    to make suggestions
    A is making a call to his boss,C.
    A to C: “Could I take a day off tody?”: Permission
    C: ” Yes,you can.”:
    “Can” to give permission for ” Could – Question ”
    A to B: ” I was able to have a day off.”:
    not possibility
    B to A:” When you went to the X hospital few years ago, The doctor could give you good treatment.”:
    A to B:” But,the hospital could have relocated last year.”:
    Possibility ( could have +past participle )
    B to A:”Ah, I could remember that the new location was so far away from here.”:
    could +remember sth in the past
    ” It coudn’t be true. “:
    negative of must = couldn’t
    A said A could find the other hospital online.: Reporting can as past
    B to A:” Anyway,You could have chosen more warm day for swimming. “:
    A to B:” We could have gone more warm country for our holiday.”:
    B to A:” How could you? :
    ” We could have gone there but you preffered more cold place.”:
    Capable but didn’t
    A to B:” And,I couldn’t have enjoyed swimming without your suggestion.”:
    not one’s capable doing( but,did)
    ” Anyway,I could have found out the hospital near here online. “:
    Speculate about what has happened
    B to A:” Can they have worked during the morning? It’s Saturday today.”:
    ” Can have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened (Question)
    A to B:” Yeah,they can’t have worked in the afternoon.”:
    ” Can’t have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened (Negative form)
    ” They can have worked only in the morning.”: ” Can have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened ( + only )
    B to A:” It’s 12pm.Everyone can hardly have thought that they caught a cold in the afternoon on Saturday. ” :
    ” Can have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened ( + hardly )
    A to B:” Oh.I could find out also the other hospital online.”:
    Past simple of “can”
    A is making a call to the hospital,D.
    A to D:” Could you treat me in the afternoon today?”:
    ” No?Well,you could work also on Saturay!”:
    “Should” angrily
    B to A:” You could have had a fever,making calls all hospitals today.”:
    speculate about something that didn’t happen ( could have +past participle )
    A to B:” I could have received treament if I’d caught a cold yesterday.”:
    speculate about something that didn’t happen( could have + past participle & if would +past participle )
    B to A:” The “E” hospital could treated you now if they had still continued the internal department as 24 hours emergency hospital.”:
    Possible present situations that have not happened ( could have +past participle & if had + past participle )

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    英語の教師と作家。父はイギリス人、母はアメリカ人。イギリス生まれ、13歳でアメリカへ。卒業後はワシントンDCで記者。現在東京に在住。著書に『この英語、どう違う?』(KADOKAWA)、『とりあえずは英語でなんと言う?』 (大和書房)、など。NHK基礎英語1と婦人公論の連載。