have a cold と catch a coldの違いは何でしょうか

  

前回、風邪とcoldの違いについての記事を投稿したのですが、読者の方から「catch a coldとhave a coldの意味は同じですか?」という質問をいただきました。確かに、これは少し分かり辛いかもしれませんね。しかし、ポイントさえ押さえれば理解出来ることなので、今日はそれについて説明します。

まず、「catch a cold」は、「風邪を引くという動作」を表します。一方で、「have a cold」は、「風邪を引いている状態」を表します。ですので、

I caught a cold from my daughter.
娘の風邪が移った。

を、
X I have a cold from my daughter.
と、いうことは出来ません。なぜならこの「I caught a cold from my daughter.」という文章は、「風邪が移った」という「動作」についての話だからです。
以下の例文を見ると、両方の使い方が分かると思います。

If I have a cold, then maybe you will catch a cold too.
私が風邪なら、あなたも風邪を引くかもしれないね。


そして、いつ風邪を引いたのかを「have a cold」で表す場合は、「since」を使って、「いつから風邪を引いている状態になったのか」を説明します。

I have had a cold since yesterday.
昨日から風邪を引いている。

I caught a cold yesterday.
昨日風邪を引いた。

上記の2つの文章を見比べると、1つ目の文章は今も風邪を引いている状態なのが読み取れますが、2つ目の文章は昨日風邪を引いたという情報しかないので、今の状態は分かりませんね。
ちなみに、現在完了形は今の状態を表す時勢なので、現在完了形の「have caught a cold」は「have a cold」の意味にとても似ています。

I have a cold.
I have caught a cold.
私は風邪を引いている。

Lukeについて

こんにちは、筆者のLuke Tunnicliffeです。僕はアメリカとイギリスのハーフで、現在東京で翻訳の仕事をしています。生まれてから13年間をイギリスで過ごし、アメリカに越して11年間生活をした後日本に来ました。イギリス、アメリカ、日本で経験した様々なことをこのサイトに生かし、皆さんにお届けしたいと思っています。日本人の人柄と和食、そして日本語が好きなのでまだまだ日本にいるつもりです!皆さんこれからもよろしくお願いします。 新着記事を読みたい方は、ぜひ英語 with Lukeをフォローして下さいね。

スラング 英会話のガイド

コメント

  • Kuni says:

    I have a cold.
    I have a headache.
    I have a sore throat
    のような病気、あるいはその症状が可算名詞になるのはなぜですか?
    具体的な症状が連想されるから?

  • Fumi says:

    Kuniさんの疑問
    まさに今、自分が持っている具体的症状だからでは?

  • Tomo says:

    私の教えてもらった記憶によると、その病気は会話相手との共通認識であるかどうかだと思います。
    the がつくのが共通、a がつくのが非共通と習った気がします。

  • Mr.Forest says:

    一日に食パン合計五枚以上食べて!!

  • ★Mika says:

    Hi Luke,
    The usage of ” have a cold ” is often used with ” could “.
    Here is a great story I considered using below:
    ◆ Could & Can & Could have + past participle & Can have + past participle ? & Can’t have + past participle & Can have for Speculate
    < Title: How many meanings ” could ” have?lol >
    A to B: “I could have a cold.”:
    Possibility in the present
    ” I could have also fever.”:
    Possibility in the future
    B to A: ” Could you go to the hospital?”:
    to make suggestions
    A is making a call to his boss,C.
    A to C: “Could I take a day off tody?”: Permission
    C: ” Yes,you can.”:
    “Can” to give permission for ” Could – Question ”
    A to B: ” I was able to have a day off.”:
    not possibility
    B to A:” When you went to the X hospital few years ago, The doctor could give you good treatment.”:
    Ability
    A to B:” But,the hospital could have relocated last year.”:
    Possibility ( could have +past participle )
    B to A:”Ah, I could remember that the new location was so far away from here.”:
    could +remember sth in the past
    ” It coudn’t be true. “:
    negative of must = couldn’t
    A said A could find the other hospital online.: Reporting can as past
    B to A:” Anyway,You could have chosen more warm day for swimming. “:
    Criticism
    A to B:” We could have gone more warm country for our holiday.”:
    Regret
    B to A:” How could you? :
    Disapproval
    ” We could have gone there but you preffered more cold place.”:
    Capable but didn’t
    A to B:” And,I couldn’t have enjoyed swimming without your suggestion.”:
    not one’s capable doing( but,did)
    ” Anyway,I could have found out the hospital near here online. “:
    Speculate about what has happened
    B to A:” Can they have worked during the morning? It’s Saturday today.”:
    ” Can have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened (Question)
    A to B:” Yeah,they can’t have worked in the afternoon.”:
    ” Can’t have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened (Negative form)
    ” They can have worked only in the morning.”: ” Can have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened ( + only )
    B to A:” It’s 12pm.Everyone can hardly have thought that they caught a cold in the afternoon on Saturday. ” :
    ” Can have + past participle” for Speculate about what has happened ( + hardly )
    A to B:” Oh.I could find out also the other hospital online.”:
    Past simple of “can”
    A is making a call to the hospital,D.
    A to D:” Could you treat me in the afternoon today?”:
    Request
    ” No?Well,you could work also on Saturay!”:
    “Should” angrily
    B to A:” You could have had a fever,making calls all hospitals today.”:
    speculate about something that didn’t happen ( could have +past participle )
    A to B:” I could have received treament if I’d caught a cold yesterday.”:
    speculate about something that didn’t happen( could have + past participle & if would +past participle )
    B to A:” The “E” hospital could treated you now if they had still continued the internal department as 24 hours emergency hospital.”:
    Possible present situations that have not happened ( could have +past participle & if had + past participle )

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