給料は英語で何というでしょうか ー 日本と英米での給料の支払い方の違い

  

突然ですが皆さん、「給料」は英語で何というでしょう?さて、たった今皆さんはどんな英単語を思い浮かべていますか?日本では、サラリーマンという言葉が使われているので、 salary が頭に浮かんだ方も多くいそうですね。もちろんこれは正しい英語ですが、給料を表す英語は、salary、wage、pay の3つあります。今日は、これらの使い分け方について説明したいと思います。

まず、pay は最も一般的な単語で、支払われるお金をいいます。pay は月給制の仕事に対しても、時給制の仕事に対しても使えます。

Doctors have very good pay.
医者の給料はとても良い。

I get paid in cash every week at my job.
俺の仕事って給料が週払いで手渡しなんだ。

次に、wage は主にアルバイトなど時給制の仕事に対して使います。「時給」はよくhourly wageと訳されています。

What is the hourly wage for this job?
この仕事の時給はいくらですか?

Bartenders have low wages, but get great tips.
バーテンダーの時給は低いが、チップが最高だ。

そしてサラリーマンでおなじみの salary は、ビジネスや専門的分野など、月給制の仕事に対して使います。

I would like a job with a better salary.
もっと良い給料の仕事がしたい。

The annual salary for this job is 30,000 dollars.
この仕事の年収は3万ドルです。

日本で給料といえば、現金の口座振込に加え給料明細を貰うのが一般的かと思います。給料明細は英語で pay slip といいます。
しかし、アメリカやイギリスでは、給料日に小切手を貰うのが一般的です。給料支払い小切手は paycheck といいます。僕は、給料の支払いに限らず、小切手を使っている日本人を見たことがありません。

monthly salary / monthly pay ー 月給
yearly salary / yearly pay ー 年収、年棒、年給
hourly wage ー 時給
paid holiday ー 有給
minimum wage ー 最低賃金

最後に、僕が1ヶ月の中で1番好きな「給料日」は、 pay day といます。この英語はとても覚えやすいですね。

Payday at my company is the 25th of every month.
私の会社は25日が給料日です。

著者のLukeについてのページはこちらです。 著書に「カジュアル系英語のトリセツ」があります。

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Lukeについて

こんにちは、筆者のLuke Tunnicliffeです。僕はアメリカとイギリスのハーフで、現在東京で翻訳の仕事をしています。生まれてから13年間をイギリスで過ごし、アメリカに越して11年間生活をした後日本に来ました。イギリス、アメリカ、日本で経験した様々なことをこのサイトに生かし、皆さんにお届けしたいと思っています。日本人の人柄と和食、そして日本語が好きなのでまだまだ日本にいるつもりです!皆さんこれからもよろしくお願いします。 新着記事を読みたい方は、ぜひ英語 with Lukeをフォローして下さいね。

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  • Payroll, oh yeah that's what I do for living! says:

    Hey everyone, My profession is in Payroll. So I would like to spit some comments about payroll in US. Thus, what I’m gonna talk about here is more biased toward US. Sorry, UK folks!
    Instead of pay slips, pay stubs are common in US. And paid holidays are a part of 有給、but PTO(Paid Time Off, PTO is a countable noun: PTOs) is commonly used for 有給. We usually get paid bi-weekly. Labor laws are usually controlled by each state, although labor laws are also set at the federal level. This is very confusing, but each state has more labor law authority for employers to follow. Most of the states in US require employers to pay their employees bi-weekly. Some other states are twice a month baisis although monthly pays are not common in US. In my case, I get paid twice a month for 10 out of 12 months and three times for 2 out of 12 months because my company follows the bi-weekly pay – it is a pay frequency law here in Grand Canyon State. A friend of mine gets paid bi-monthly since his company’s headquarters is located in another state: therefore, his company can follow the home state of labor laws. Construction companies use bi-monthly pay methods a lot. He works for a construction company and its headquarters is located in PA(Pensylvania). Some people get paid weekly basis. I wished I could have had paid like him, but it would be a disaster for payroll professionals!

  • ★Mika says:

    Hi Luke,

    Is the following my comment right?

    ★ What is ‘pay’?

    ◆ Pay: noun

    ‘ The ​money you receive for doing a ​job ‘

    ‘ You ‘ are a receiver.

    ◆ Pay: verb

    ‘ To give ​money to someone for ​work that they have done ‘

    The doer is a sender.

    ◆ Payment: no plural – noun

    ‘ The act of paying ‘

    The doer is a sender.

    ◆ Payroll:noun

    ‘ To pay salary to employee ‘

    The doer is a payroll clerk from the company as a sender.

    ★ How to pay?

    In Japan : Transfer
    In UK & US : Paycheck

    ★ What is ‘ Bill ‘?

    In UK : 1.) Paycheck 2.) Invoice
    In US : 3.) Note

    1.) Paper checks writing and mailing for payment.
    2.) It is used like ‘Could we have the bill,
    please?’ at a restaurant.
    3.) Do not say ‘Bill,please.’ to American.LOL.

    ★ How does it mean below?

    ‘ Bill Pay is quicker and easier than writing and mailing paper checks.’

    ・’ Bill ‘ means ‘ Invoice ‘.Not ‘ Paycheck ‘.
    ・’ Bill Pay ‘ means ‘ Name of Payment Service of the company ‘,probably.
    ・’ writing and mailing paper checks ‘ means ‘ Paycheck ‘.

    I think the sentence means:
    ‘ Our Payment Service,you can make payments for invoice and it’s easier than paycheck.’

    ★ What is a trap in Japanese-English about’Pay’?

    Most people in Japan think the word for ‘Pay ‘is ‘Income’ in English.Who has made it?No way.

    How is ‘No way’?

    Remind that. ‘How to pay? In Japan : Transfer ‘.

    ‘Transfer’+’Income’=’Transfer Income’.

    It means ​’money from the ​government in the ​form of ​benefits ‘.(= ​payments for ​people who cannot ​find a ​job or are too ill to ​work)

    Never use it,if it is used insted of ‘Pay’ by Japanes accounting .

    ★ How we can say insted of ‘that’?

    ‘Make payments via telegrapfic transfer ‘.

    ・’ Make Payments ‘ is activity.
    ・’ Telegrapfic Transfer ‘ is a method.

    ★ ‘ Payment: no plural – noun ‘?

    ‘Payments: noun’ is in Business English.

    It means an ​amount of ​money that is expected to be ​paid. It’s not ‘action’.

    ★ How can we say about the bank account for receiving payments?

    ‘Beneficiary account for payments’.

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